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Article

An Introduction to Abbot

A Friendly JUnit Extension for GUI Testing

  • The script editor will be used to create the test cases. Costello, the script editor, can be started by:

    java -jar lib/abbot.jar

    Once the GUI is running, the first step is to create a new script (File->New Script). Each script has a launch line that specifies the method (containing the GUI) to be tested. The launch line is edited with the information that can launch the GUI. The launch information requires the method name, arguments for the method, class information, and the classpath (see Figure 2).

    method="main"
    args="[]"
    class="CelsiusConverter"
    classpath="src/demo"

    Note that the XML test script example has the same information in the launch tag.

    With the launch information in place, the GUI can be launched (Test->Launch). This will prepare the framework to record user actions. To record user actions, press F2 (Capture->All Actions). With this step we can record the first case, which inputs a positive number, and then press convert.

    Once the user interactions have been captured, we can move the actions out of the sequence block for better readability. With the script looking the way we want, it's now time to add an assertion. To do this, we'll use the Hierarchy tab to navigate to the GUI component. Upon selection of the GUI component, the name-value pair to be validated can be selected and the Assert Property = Value button will add the assertion (see Figure 3).

    The other two test cases can be created similarly to form a test suite. The test cases can run within the JUnit test harness utilizing either the command line or the GUI test runner. The junit.extensions.abbot.ScriptFixture class is subclassed to create the CelsiusConverterTest.

    public class CelsiusConverterTest
    extends ScriptFixture

    The junit.extensions.abbot.ScriptTestSuite class is used to autogenerate a suite based on test scripts matching a certain criteria. In this case, all scripts residing in a particular directory will be used. The test ScriptTestSuite class is subclassed from the junit.Framework.TestSuite class.

    public static Test suite() {
    return new ScriptTestSuite
    (CelsiusConverterTest.class,
    "src\demo\scripts\CelsiusConverter");
    }

    The main method of the CelsiusConverterTest class invokes the JUnit test runners.

    public static void main(String[] args){
    args = Log.init(args);
    String[] names = {
    CelsiusConverterTest.class.getName()
    };
    if (args.length == 1 &&
    args[0].equals("--gui"))
    junit.swingui.TestRunner.main(names);
    else
    junit.textui.TestRunner.main(names);
    }

    This approach facilitates the creation of a variety of user interaction scenarios that can be easily integrated with JUnit. Another interesting and handy feature is the ability to insert existing scripts into another script. Some high-level GUI tasks can be broken down into smaller tasks. In these cases, I've created scripts for the most granular tasks and then created different interaction scenarios by inserting the scripts for different tasks in a different order or by adding additional user interactions in between the tasks. Since the scripts are XML-based, they're very easy to read and they help in rapidly generating different scenarios.

  • More Stories By Satadip Dutta

    Satadip Dutta is a software architect at Hewlett-Packard (http://devresource.hp.com) and has been programming in Java since 1997. His areas of interest include distributed software architecture, Web services, and user interface design. Satadip holds an MS in Computer Science from Virginia Tech.

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